Age, education, maltreatment, and social support as predictors of chronic depression in former prisoners of war

This study examined the relationships of prisoner of war captivity trauma variables and individual protective variables to current depressive symptoms as indexed by the CES-D and its components. The sample consisted of 989 U.S. former POWs of World War II and the Korean War, who have been followed since the mid 1950s. Depressive symptoms persisted over 40 years later. Age, education, medical symptoms during captivity, and level of social support were related to later levels of adjustment. Theoretical and methodological implications of the findings were discussed.