Oleuropein, an Anti-oxidant Polyphenol Constituent of Olive Promotes α-Secretase Cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (AβPP)

Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - 2012-10-07Kostomoiri M, Fragkouli A, Sangou M, Skaltsounis LA, Pelecanou M, Tsilibary EC, Tzinia A10.1007/s10571-012-9880-9
Over the past decade, intense focus has been dedicated on investigating processes involved in the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (AβPP) and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide metabolism, as possible targets for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. To this goal, considerable research has been targeted on potential therapeutic use of compounds promoting non-amyloidogenic processing of AβPP. One of these compounds, oleuropein, a polyphenol constituent of extra virgin olive oil exhibiting a wide range of pharmacological properties, was shown to interact non-covalently with Aβ, an interaction that might be related to a potential protective role of oleuropein against Aβ aggregation. In the present study, it was demonstrated that oleuropein treatment of HEK293 cells stably transfected with the isoform 695 of human AβPP (APP695) leads to markedly elevated levels of sAPPα and to significant reduction of Aβ oligomers. These effects were associated with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), whereas no significant alterations in the expression of secretases TACE, ADAM-10 or BACE-1 were observed. Similar results were obtained using the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. The experimental data reveal an anti-amyloidogenic effect of oleuropein and suggest a possible protective role for oleuropein against AD, extending the spectrum of beneficial properties of this naturally occurring polyphenol.