Functional cortical associations and their intraclass correlations and heritability as revealed by the Functional Magnetic Resonance ImagingFunctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc. Human Connectome Project

We report on the functional connectivity (FC), its intraclass correlation (ICC), and heritability among 70 areas of the human cerebral cortex. FC was estimated as the Pearson correlation between averaged prewhitened Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent time series of cortical areas in 988 young adult participants in the Human Connectome Project. Pairs of areas were assigned to three groups, namely homotopic (same area in the two hemispheres), ipsilateral (both areas in the same hemisphere), and heterotopic (nonhomotopic areas in different hemispheres). ICC for each pair of areas was computed for six genetic groups, namely monozygotic (MZ) twins, dizygotic (DZ) twins, singleton siblings of MZ twins (MZsb), singleton siblings of DZ twins (DZsb), non-twin siblings (SB), and unrelated individuals (UNR). With respect to FC, we found the following. (a) Homotopic FC was stronger than ipsilateral and heterotopic FC; (b) average FCs of left and right cortical areas were highly and positively correlated; and (c) FC varied in a systematic fashion along the anterior-posterior and inferior-superior dimensions, such that it increased from anterior to posterior and from inferior to superior. With respect to ICC, we found the following. (a) Homotopic ICC was significantly higher than ipsilateral and heterotopic ICC, but the latter two did not differ significantly from each other; (b) ICC was highest for MZ twins; (c) ICC of DZ twins was significantly lower than that of the MZ twins and higher than that of the three sibling groups (MZsb, DZsb, SB); and (d) ICC was close to zero for UNR. Finally, with respect to heritability, it was highest for homotopic areas, followed by ipsilateral, and heterotopic; however, it did not differ statistically significantly from each other.