Brain Function News
Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in World War II Veterans
permalinkPsychological Assessment - 1996-01-01Engdahl B, Eberly RE, Blake JD10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.2065Four
Posttraumatic Stress Disorderscales were compared in a community sample of 330 American former prisoners of war and combat veterans of World War II. The Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related
PTSD), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Pk
PTSDscale, and the Impact of Event Scale (IES) all demonstrated moderate relationships with
PTSDas defined by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Comparative validities were similar to those observed in Vietnam veteran samples. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 3 scales loaded significantly on 1 factor. The impact of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.)
PTSDcriteria changes was examined and found to be minimal. Implications for the use of the M-
PTSD, Pk, and IES in combat-related
PTSDassessment are discussed.
Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Former Prisoners of War
Prevalence of Somatic and Psychiatric Disorders Among Former Prisoners of War
PTSD, although their rates of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and alcoholism were not elevated. POWs who lost more than 35 percent of their body weight during captivity had higher rates of anxiety disorder, depressive disorders,
PTSD, and schizophrenia, compared with other POWs.
An adaptational view of trauma response as illustrated by the prisoner of war experience
permalinkJournal of Traumatic Stree - 1991-07-01Eberly RE, Harkness AR, Engdahl B10.1002/jts.2490040305We propose a model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (
PTSD) symptoms in which they have positive evolutionary adaptational value in traumatic environments. The persistence of
PTSDsymptoms following return to more benign environments may result from biological changes within the organism, reflected by a primary response of increased levels of underlying traits such as Negative Affectivity. Secondary symptoms such as social withdrawal and substance abuse are conceptualized as subsequent coping with the primary trauma response. This model was tested using data on 413 former World War II Prisoners of War (POWs). The results were consistent with the model, indicating an enduring high level of Negative Affectivity as measured by scales on the MMPI. Captivity severity scores, developed using a factor analysis of POW experience variables, were related to lifetime and current diagnoses of
PTSD, generalized anxiety disorder, and major or minor depression. They were not related to schizophrenia, alcohol abuse/dependence, bipolar I and II disorders, or organic mental disorders. Elevated Negative Affectivity indicators were proportional to the captivity severity scores.
Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and personality profiles of American World War II prisoners of war
permalinkJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease - 1991-04-01Engdahl B, Speed N, Eberly RE, Schwartz J10.1097/00005053-199104000-00001Examined the psychiatric comorbidity and personality characteristics of 62 World War II prisoners of war (POWs). This study extends the previous findings of N. Speed et al (see record 1989-26181-001). Each former POW completed the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime Version (SADS-L), a
PTSDsymptom severity scale based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The Ss displayed a remarkable frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders and a current adjustment characterized by traits of depression, anxiety, and somatization. Only 19% were free from all SADS-L lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, and only 9 had MMPI profiles within "normal limits." The amount of comorbidity of
PTSDand depression 40 yrs after captivity was also remarkable. Findings support the hypothesis that depression is a late manifestation of being chronically ill with