Brain Function News

Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Former Prisoners of War

Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - 1991-11-01Page WF, Engdahl B, Eberly RE10.1097/00005053-199111000-00004
Studies of former prisoners of war (POWs) provide valuable insights into posttraumatic adaptation because they gather information from a large population who survived the traumatic experiences of military captivity. Previous studies of POWs have shown elevated rates of psychiatric symptoms and disorders. This report presents evidence from a longitudinal study of three large, representative, national samples of former POWs. The study finds that depressive symptomatology, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, is elevated in World War II POWs from the Pacific and European theaters and in Korean conflict POWs. Decades later, depressive symptomatology is found to be strongly associated with prior treatment in captivity. Differences in depressive symptomatology among the three POW groups can be attributed to captivity-related factors and to buffering factors, such as age at capture and education.

Prevalence of Somatic and Psychiatric Disorders Among Former Prisoners of War

Hospital and Community Psychiatry - 1991-08-01Eberly RE, Engdahl B10.1176/ps.42.8.807
American former prisoners of war (POWs) are an aging group who seek health care with increasing frequency. To examine the prevalence of long-term physical and emotional consequences of captivity in this population, the authors analyzed medical and psychiatric examination data for 426 former POWs. Detailed psychiatric diagnostic criteria were used to assess the POWs' mental health. Compared with general population groups, POWs had moderately elevated lifetime prevalence rates of depressive disorders and greatly elevated rates of
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
, although their rates of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and alcoholism were not elevated. POWs who lost more than 35 percent of their body weight during captivity had higher rates of anxiety disorder, depressive disorders,
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
, and schizophrenia, compared with other POWs.

An adaptational view of trauma response as illustrated by the prisoner of war experience

Journal of Traumatic Stree - 1991-07-01Eberly RE, Harkness AR, Engdahl B10.1002/jts.2490040305
We propose a model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
) symptoms in which they have positive evolutionary adaptational value in traumatic environments. The persistence of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
symptoms following return to more benign environments may result from biological changes within the organism, reflected by a primary response of increased levels of underlying traits such as Negative Affectivity. Secondary symptoms such as social withdrawal and substance abuse are conceptualized as subsequent coping with the primary trauma response. This model was tested using data on 413 former World War II Prisoners of War (POWs). The results were consistent with the model, indicating an enduring high level of Negative Affectivity as measured by scales on the MMPI. Captivity severity scores, developed using a factor analysis of POW experience variables, were related to lifetime and current diagnoses of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
, generalized anxiety disorder, and major or minor depression. They were not related to schizophrenia, alcohol abuse/dependence, bipolar I and II disorders, or organic mental disorders. Elevated Negative Affectivity indicators were proportional to the captivity severity scores.

Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and personality profiles of American World War II prisoners of war

Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - 1991-04-01Engdahl B, Speed N, Eberly RE, Schwartz J10.1097/00005053-199104000-00001
Examined the psychiatric comorbidity and personality characteristics of 62 World War II prisoners of war (POWs). This study extends the previous findings of N. Speed et al (see record 1989-26181-001). Each former POW completed the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime Version (SADS-L), a
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
symptom severity scale based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The Ss displayed a remarkable frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders and a current adjustment characterized by traits of depression, anxiety, and somatization. Only 19% were free from all SADS-L lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, and only 9 had MMPI profiles within "normal limits." The amount of comorbidity of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
and depression 40 yrs after captivity was also remarkable. Findings support the hypothesis that depression is a late manifestation of being chronically ill with
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
.

Age, education, maltreatment, and social support as predictors of chronic depression in former prisoners of war

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology - 1991-03-01Engdahl B, Page WF, Miller TW10.1007/BF00791528
This study examined the relationships of prisoner of war captivity trauma variables and individual protective variables to current depressive symptoms as indexed by the CES-D and its components. The sample consisted of 989 U.S. former POWs of World War II and the Korean War, who have been followed since the mid 1950s. Depressive symptoms persisted over 40 years later. Age, education, medical symptoms during captivity, and level of social support were related to later levels of adjustment. Theoretical and methodological implications of the findings were discussed.

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