Polysomnographic sleep is not clinically impaired in vietnam combat veterans with chronic
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.

Biological Psychiatry - 1998-11-15Hurwitz TD, Mahowald MW, Kuskowski MA, Engdahl B10.1016/S0006-3223(98)00089-4
Background: Because sleep is typically disturbed in
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
, this study was undertaken to evaluate a group of Vietnam combat veterans with the disorder using clinical polysomnographic techniques.Methods: Eighteen Vietnam combat veterans with
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
and 10 healthy non-combat-exposed Vietnam era veterans participated in 2 nights of polysomnographic study and a multiple sleep latency test.Results: No significant differences between subjects and controls were noted except for greater sleep onset latency to stage 2 (p < .03), and lower arousals/hour from stages 3 & 4 (p < .04) on night 2, and lower subjectively estimated total sleep time on night 1 (p < .005) in the case of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
subjects. Otherwise, results from the second night served to replicate those from the first, and no significant differences appeared on 2 successive nights for any polysomnographic variable. No daytime hypersomnolence was detected.Conclusions: Polysomnographically recorded sleep was notably better than expected in the...

Interview with Apostolos P. Georgopoulos

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience - 1998-09-01Georgopoulos AP10.1162/089892998562951
APG studied Medicine and Physiology at the University of Athens in Greece where he obtained his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees. He was trained in neurophysiology by Vernon B. Mountcastle at Johns Hopkins and, after a brief return to Athens, he came back to Johns Hopkins. He ascended the faculty ranks and promoted to Professor of Neuroscience in 1986.He was a member of the Philip Bard Laboratories of Neuro-physiology at the Department of Neuroscience until 1991 when he moved to Minnesota as the American Legion Brain Sciences Chair at the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the University of Minnesota.

Matching Patterns of Activity in Primate Prefrontal Area 8a and Parietal Area 7ip Neurons During a Spatial Working MemoryTask

Journal of Neurophysiology - 1998-06-01Chafee M, Goldman-Rakic PS10.1152/jn.1998.79.6.2919
Matching patterns of activity in primate prefrontal area 8a and parietal area 7ip neurons during a spatial working memory task. J. Neurophysiol. 79: 2919-2940, 1998. Single-unit recording studies of posterior parietal neurons have indicated a similarity of neuronal activation to that observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in relation to performance of delayed saccade tasks. A key issue addressed in the present study is whether the different classes of neuronal activity observed in these tasks are encountered more frequently in one or the other area or otherwise exhibit region-specific properties. The present study is the first to directly compare these patterns of neuronal activity by alternately recording from parietal area 7ip and prefrontal area 8a, under the identical behavioral conditions, within the same hemisphere of two monkeys performing an oculomotor delayed response task. The firing rate of 222 posterior parietal and 235 prefrontal neurons significantly changed during the cue, delay, and/or...

Variability and Correlated Noise in the Discharge of Neurons in Motor and Parietal Areas of the Primate Cortex

Journal of Neuroscience - 1998-02-01Lee D, Port NL, Kruse W, Georgopoulos AP10.1523/JNEUROSCI.18-03-01161.1998
We analyzed the magnitude and interneuronal correlation of the variability in the activity of single neurons that were recorded simultaneously using a multielectrode array in the primary motor cortex and parietal areas 2/5 in rhesus monkeys. The animals were trained to move their arms in one of eight directions as instructed by a visual target. The relationship between variability (SD) and mean of the discharge rate was described by a power function with a similar exponent (∼0.57), regardless of the cortical area or the behavioral condition. We examined whether the deviation from mean activity between target onset and the end of the movement was correlated on a trial-by-trial basis with variability in activity during the hold period before target onset. In both cortical areas, for about a quarter of the neurons, the neuronal noise of these two periods was positively correlated, whereas significant negative correlations were seldom observed. Overall, neurons with...

Online visual control of the arm

Novartis Foundation Symposium - 1998-01-01Georgopoulos AP
The psychophysical and cerebrocortical mechanisms in visually guided reaching movements and isometric force pulses are discussed. The results of psychophysical studies of pointing movements have demonstrated a tight coupling between the visual information and the direction of the movement, and those of studies of directed isometric force pulses have documented the sensitive dependence of the motor system on the continuous availability of visual information for the ongoing correction of directional deviations from the instructed direction. Recordings of the activity of single cells in the motor cortex and parietal areas 2 and 5 have revealed the same tight, online coupling between visual information and cell discharge, and have partially elucidated the neural mechanisms underlying this function at the cortical level.

Neuronal Population Coding: Multielectrode Recordings in Primate Cerebral Cortex

Strategies in teh Study of Biological Neural Networks - 1998-01-01Lee D, Port NL, Kruse W, Georgopoulos AP
The central nervous system can be described in terms of its ability to detect and categorize various spatiotemporal patterns in the sensory receptor arrays and to produce coordinated behavior by providing appropriate control signals to the individual effectors. This task is achieved by a vast network of neurons, and, therefore, it may be difficult to fully understand the functional significance of the activity of individual neurons outside the context of the network. Direct information concerning the role of individual neurons in a network can be obtained by simultaneously recording the activity of several neurons. For that purpose, we have been using a seven-electrode system to examine neuronal activity in the primate cortex while the animal performs various behavioral tasks. This chapter first describes our recording system and software/hardware for spike isolation and then reports some results from our analysis on the activity of neurons recorded simultaneously during a simple visuomotor task....

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
of mental rotation and memory scanning: a multidimensional scaling analysis of brain activation patterns

Brain Research Reviews - 1998-01-01Tagaris GA, Richter W, Kim SG, Pellizzer G, Andersen P, Ugurbil K, Georgopoulos AP
Mental rotation and memory scanning are typical examples of cognitive operations presumably involved in various tasks. The original tasks involved judgements to be indicated by key presses or verbal responses, whereas recent variants required directed movements as responses. The cardinal sign of both mental rotation and memory scanning tasks is the increase of the response time with task demands, namely the angle of rotation or of the number of items in the list scanned. The rates of processing information in these two kinds of tasks are uncorrelated, which suggests that different brain mechanisms may be involved. In contrast, the rates of rotation of a figure or a movement direction are positively correlated, which suggests that common aspects of brain mechanisms may be involved in widely different cases of mental rotation. The overall brain mechanisms underlying mental rotation and memory scanning are largely unknown. With respect to mental rotation, a consistent finding...

Time-resolved
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
of mental rotation

NeuroReport - 1997-12-01Richter W, Ugurbil K, Georgopoulos AP, Kim SG
TIME-RESOLVED
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
seeks to elucidate neuronal activity during a single execution of a mental task, which corresponds typically to a timescale of seconds. However, this is also the timescale of the hemodynamic response, which delays and blurs the signal in time. In order to distinguish the temporal characteristics of the neuronal activity from that of the hemodynamic response, which is often vaguely known, we recorded a set of
fMRI

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
time courses under conditions of a varying behavioral parameter, and correlated this parameter to the width of the
fMRI

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
response. For the task under investigation, the mental rotation of three-dimensional objects, we found that the activation in the parietal lobe is related to an aspect of the task that is described by the reaction time (for example, the very act of mental rotation), and not only to aspects of the task that are constant from trial to trial, such as the visual...

Transformation of the intended direction of movement during continuous motor trajectories

Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology - 1997-11-10Pellizzer G
CHRONOMETRIC and neurophysiological studies have demonstrated that mentally transforming the intended direction of a pointing movement is a time-consuming process, the duration of which increases with the angle of rotation. If the same time-consuming process occurred while tracing a curved trajectory, it would affect the time course of the movement. The data from subjects drawing simple figures match well the predictions made, and support the hypothesis that a time-consuming process of transformation of the intended movement direction operates during the production of continuous trajectories. This biologically inspired hypothesis provides a functional explanation for the relation between speed of the movement and curvature of the path. In addition, it contrasts with the view of continuous movements as essentially oscillatory motions.

Manual interception of moving targets II. On-line control of overlapping submovements

Experimental Brain Research - 1997-10-01Lee D, Port NL, Georgopoulos AP10.1007/PL00005770
We studied the kinematic characteristics of arm movements and their relation to a stimulus moving with a wide range of velocity and acceleration. The target traveled at constant acceleration, constant deceleration, or constant velocity for 0.5-2.0 s, until it arrived at a location where it was required to be intercepted. For fast moving targets, subjects produced single movements with symmetrical, bell-shaped velocity profiles. In contrast, for slowly moving targets, hand velocity profiles displayed multiple peaks, which suggests a control mechanism that produces a series of discrete submovements according to characteristics of target motion. To analyze how temporal and spatial aspects of these submovements are influenced by target motion, we decomposed the vertical hand velocity profiles into bell-shaped velocity pulses according to the minimum-jerk model. The number of submovements was roughly proportional to the movement time, resulting in a relatively constant submovement frequency (∼2.5 Hz). On the other hand, the submovement onset...

Manual interception of moving targets I. Performance and movement initiation

Experimental Brain Research - 1997-10-01Port NL, Lee D, Dassonville P, Georgopoulos AP10.1007/PL00005769
We investigated the capacities of human subjects to intercept moving targets in a two-dimensional (2D) space. Subjects were instructed to intercept moving targets on a computer screen using a cursor controlled by an articulated 2D manipulandum. A target was presented in 1 of 18 combinations of three acceleration types (constant acceleration, constant deceleration, and constant velocity) and six target motion times, from 0.5 to 2.0 s. First, subjects held the cursor in a start zone located at the bottom of the screen along the vertical meridian. After a pseudorandom hold period, the target appeared in the lower left or right corner of the screen and traveled at 45° toward an interception zone located on the vertical meridian 12.5 cm above the start zone. For a trial to be considered successful, the subject's cursor had to enter the interception zone within 100 ms of the target's arrival at the center of the...

Neural Modeling of Motor Cortex and Spinal Cord

Defense Technical Information Center - 1997-08-20Georgopoulos AP
We developed physiologically relevant, neural networks to model time-varying neuronal population operations in the motor cortex and spinal cord, dealing with movements in space. We also developed a model of the interactions between these two networks dealing with generating time-varying motoneuronal outputs for movements in space. The novelty of our approach consisted in (a) the realistic nature of the elements in our networks, (b) the massive and asymmetric interconnectivity among network elements, (c) the physiologically relevant design of the networks, including the communication by spike trains among network elements and rules of connectivity based on experimental findings, (d) the dynamical behavior of the networks, and (e) the time-varying performance of the networks. Finally, we were able to reliably decode and transform the neuronal ensemble activity recorded in behaving animals for controlling an simulated arm. This demonstration suggests that the use of biologically inspired neural networks to transform raw cortical signals into...

Mental Rotation Studied by
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
at High Field (4 Tesla): Performance and Cortical Activation

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience - 1997-07-01Tagaris GA, Kim SG, Strupp JP, Andersen P, Ugurbil K, Georgopoulos AP10.1162/jocn.1997.9.4.419
We studied the performance and cortical activation patterns during a mental rotation task (Shepard & Metzler, 1971) using
fMRI

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
(fMlU) at high field (4 Tesla). Twenty-four human subjects were imaged (
fMRI

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
group), whereas six additional subjects performed the task without being imaged (control group). All subjects were shown pairs of perspective drawings of 31, objects and asked to judge whether they were the same or mirror images. The measures of performance examined included (1) the percentage of errors, (2) the speed of performance, calculated as the inverse of the average response time, and (3) the rate of rotation for those object pairs correctly identified as "same." We found the following: (1) Subjects in the
fMRI

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
group performed well outside and inside the magnet, and, in the latter case, before and during data acquisition. Moreover, performance over time improved in the same manner as in the control group. These...

Voluntary Movement: Computational Principles and Neural Mechanisms

Cognitive Neuroscience - 1997-05-01Georgopoulos AP
Movements of body parts comprise a large variety of motions (e.g. from small finger movements to locomotion) produced for various behavioural purposes (e.g. reach towards an object, manipulate an object, run away from a predator). Which of these movements are voluntary? Clearly, reaching to an object of interest is a voluntary motor act, but is arm swinging during walking, or running for life from a predator voluntary as well? In a way they are not because, for example, the arms swing while we walk without our intentionally willing them to do so, and we run away from a predator because our life is in imminent danger and, therefore, we have no choice. However, in both these cases, we can do otherwise if we choose to do so: we can walk without swinging our arms, and we can stay immobile when the predator approaches. However, we cannot stop other movements that are...

Sequential activity in human motor areas during a delayed cued finger movement task studied by time-resolved
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.

NeuroReport - 1997-03-24Richter W, Andersen P, Georgopoulos AP, Kim SG
ACTIVITY in the human primary motor cortex, the premotor cortex and the supplementary motor area during a delayed cued finger movement task was measured by time-resolved
fMRI

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
. Activity during movement preparation can be resolved from activity during movement execution in a single trial. All three areas were active during both movement preparation and movement execution. Activity in the primary motor cortex was considerably weaker during movement preparation than during movement execution; in the premotor cortex and the supplementary motor area, activity was of similar intensity during both periods. These observations are consistent with results from single neuronal recording studies in primates.

Box-Jenkins intervention analysis of
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
data

Neuroscience Research - 1997-03-01Tagaris GA, Richter W, Kim SG, Georgopoulos AP10.1016/S0168-0102(97)01154-1
Data obtained in
fMRI

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
typically form a time series of MRI signal collected over a period of time at constant intervals. These data are potentially autocorrelated and may contain time trends. Therefore, any assessment of significant changes in the MRI signal over a certain period of time requires the use of specific statistical techniques. For that purpose we used the Box-Jenkins intervention time series analysis to determine brain activation during task performance. We found that for a substantial number of pixels there was significant autocorrelation and, occasionally, time trends. In these cases, use of the classical t-test would not be appropriate. In contrast, Box-Jenkins intervention analysis, by detrending the series and by explicitly taking into account the correlation structure, provides a more appropriate method to determine the presence of significant activation during the task period in
fMRI

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
data.

Neural Networks and Motor Control

The Neuroscientist - 1997-01-01Georgopoulos AP
Motor control is accomplished by the cooperative interaction of many brain networks, among which the motor cortex holds a central place. This article reviews some of the structural and functional properties of neurons of the motor cortical network, some principles of connectivity with other motor networks, the handling of spatial information regarding reaching movements, and some ideas on how motor cortical commands could be translated to muscle activations by spinal motor networks. Finally, I review recent neural network modeling studies of motor cortical ensemble operations.

Motor Cortex: Neural and Computational Studies

Neural-Networks Models of Cognition - 1997-01-01Georgopoulos AP
The motor cortex can be regarded as a network of neurons processing, interalia, spatial motor information. A basic component of this information is the direction of movement in space. Experimental studies in behaving monkeys have shown that the impulse activity of single motor-cortical cells relates to this component in an orderly fashion, such that the frequency of cell discharge is a sinusoidal function of the direction of movement, with the direction for which cell discharge is highest denoting the "preferred direction" of the cell. The neuronal ensemble of such directionally tuned cells can be regarded as a network in which each cell is represented as a vector pointing in the cell's preferred direction. The network operates to generate a signal in the direction of a desired movement. We regard this operation as the directorial summation of the cell vectors, weighted by a scalar measure of the intensity of cell activation. The...

Mental transformations in the motor cortex

Cognitive Brain Research - 1996-12-01Pellizzer G10.1016/S0926-6410(96)00048-1
The behavioral and neural correlates of processing of motor directional information are described for two visuomotor tasks: mental rotation and context-recall. Psychological studies with human subjects suggested that these two tasks involve different time-consuming processes of directional information. Analyses of the activity of single cells and neuronal populations in the motor cortex of behaving monkeys performing in the same tasks provided direct insight into the neural mechanisms involved and confirmed their different nature. In the mental rotation task the patterns of neuronal activity revealed a rotation of the intended direction of movement. In contrast, in the context-recall task the patterns of neural activity identified a switching process of the intended direction of movement.

Arm movements in monkeys: behavior and neurophysiology

Journal of Comparative Physiology A - 1996-11-01Georgopoulos AP10.1007/BF00216125
Reaching to objects of interest is very common in the behavioral repertoire of primates. Monkeys possess keen binocular vision and make graceful and accurate arm movements. This review focuses on behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of eye-hand coordination in behaving monkeys, including neural coding mechanisms at the single cell level and in neuronal populations. The results of these studies have converged to a common behavioral-neurophysiological ground and provided a springboard for studies of brain mechanisms underlying motor cognitive function.

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