2016 Summer Scholars learning research ropes at
Brain Sciences Center

Brain Sciences Center (BSC)

A research group in collaboration with the Minnesota American Legion, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, and the University of Minnesota.

BSC - 2016-06-01Martin K
This summer, six science students will be helping with our ongoing Gulf War and
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
projects, plus assisting Drs. Shikha Jain Goodwin and Adam Carpenter with their study of multiple sclerosis.Elsa Mattson (University of Minnesota/neuroscience minor) is interested in the neural mechanisms and gender differences in psychopathology.Lindsey Wanberg (Washington University, St. Louis/pre-med, biology) is also performing her own research on secondary traumatic stress.Kha Lor (University of St. Thomas/neuroscience major) has explored the computational and physical surface-induced collisions of polypeptides. Her main research project will be with Dr. Brian Engdahl, looking at
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
and Quality of Life as outcome variables. She will also be working under Drs. Lisa James and Jennifer Heath Mathison with the Brain Resilience Project and
Gulf War Illness

Gulf War Illness (GWI)

Shortly after the Gulf War (1990^aEUR"91), veterans started to report a variety of health problems that began during, or soon after returning from, deployment, prompting investigation into the epidemiology and etiology of the complaints. Those investigations revealed that diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, mood and neurocognitive complaints, gastrointestinal problems, and rashes were most commonly reported. The constellation of symptoms, now commonly referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI), has affected a substantial number of Gulf War veterans. Several population-based studies have demonstrated that these symptoms occur at significantly higher rates in deployed Gulf War veterans relative to their nondeployed peers and other veterans, raising the issue about possible in-theater exposures and stress as contributing factors. However, these symptoms are also present in non-deployed military personnel, leading some to suspect other causes, including reactions to vaccine adjuvants. In summary, GWI is now a recognized constellation of symptoms of unclear etiology, also co-occurring with psychiatric disorders.
studies.Michaela McGonigle (Macalester College/psychology major, biology minor with neuroscience emphasis) has studied facial expression processing in the human brain and measured the visual capacity of neurotypical adults in comparison to...

Overcoming Long-Term Variability in Local Field Potentials Using an Adaptive Decoder

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - 2016-04-20Tadipatri VA, Tewfik AH, Pellizzer G10.1109/TBME.2016.2557070
Long-term variability remains one of the major hurdles in using intracortical recordings like local field potentials for brain computer interfaces (BCI). Practical neural decoders need to overcome time instability of neural signals to estimate subject behavior accurately and faithfully over the long term. This paper presents a novel decoder that 1) characterizes each behavioral task (i.e., different movement directions under different force conditions) with multiple neural patterns and 2) adapts to the long-term variations in neural features by identifying the stable neural patterns. This adaptation can be performed in both an unsupervised and a semisupervised learning framework requiring minimal feedback from the user. To achieve generalization over time, the proposed decoder uses redundant sparse regression models that adapt to day-to-day variations in neural patterns. While this update requires no explicit feedback from the BCI user, any feedback (explicit or derived) to the BCI improves its performance. With this adaptive decoder, we...

Monkey Prefrontal Neurons Reflect Logical Operations for Cognitive Control in a Variant of the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT)

Journal of Neuroscience - 2016-04-06Blackman R, Crowe D, DeNicola A, Sakellaridi S, MacDonald III AW, Chafee M10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3578-15.2016
Cognitive control is the ability to modify the behavioral response to a stimulus based on internal representations of goals or rules. We sought to characterize neural mechanisms in prefrontal cortex associated with cognitive control in a context that would maximize the potential for future translational relevance to human neuropsychiatric disease. To that end, we trained monkeys to perform a dot-pattern variant of the AX continuous performance task that is used to measure cognitive control impairment in patients with schizophrenia (MacDonald, 2008; Jones et al., 2010). Here we describe how information processing for cognitive control in this task is related to neural activity patterns in prefrontal cortex of monkeys, to advance our understanding of how behavioral flexibility is implemented by prefrontal neurons in general, and to model neural signals in the healthy brain that may be disrupted to produce cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia. We found that the neural representation of stimuli...

Researchers pinpoint circuits that drive
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
flashbacks

CBC News - David Kattenburg - 2016-02-04
From the article:
Studies could help people suffering from panic attacks, psychosis and obsessive-compulsive disorder."It's like sort of boxes opening up, and your brain just launches these things without you actually trying to stimulate them." That was how then-senator, and retired general, Romeo Dallaire described the flashbacks that bubble up in his head.Dallaire made the comments in a 2013 interview with the CBC's Sunday Edition, 20 years after the Rwandan genocide he tried to stop. He's far from alone in dealing with those type of unwelcome flashbacks. An estimated 10 per cent of Canadians struggle with depression, flashbacks and panic attacks as a result of post-traumatic stress disorder, or
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
, according to the Canadian Mental Health Association. ...

Differential neural activity patterns for spatial relations in humans: a
Magnetoencephalography

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

A noninvasive technique that detects magnetic fields above the surface of the head produced by postsynaptic potentials in the brain.
study

Experimental Brain Research - 2016-02-01Scott NM, Leuthold A, Sera MD, Georgopoulos AP10.1007/s00221-015-4467-6
Children learn the words for above-below relations earlier than for left-right relations, despite treating these equally well in a simple visual categorization task. Even as adults-conflicts in congruency, such as when a stimulus is depicted in a spatially incongruent manner with respect to salient global cues-can be challenging. Here we investigated the neural correlates of encoding and maintaining in working memory above-below and left-right relational planes in 12 adults using magnetoencephalography in order to discover whether above-below relations are represented by the brain differently than left-right relations. Adults performed perfectly on the task behaviorally, so any differences in neural activity were attributed to the stimuli's cognitive attributes. In comparing above-below to left-right relations during stimulus encoding, we found the greatest differences in neural activity in areas associated with space and movement. In comparing congruent to incongruent trials, we found the greatest differential activity in premotor areas. For both contrasts, brain areas...

Integrating Insults: Using Fault Tree Analysis to Guide Schizophrenia Research across Levels of Analysis

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - 2016-01-06MacDonald III AW, Zick JL, Chafee M, Netoff TI10.3389/fnhum.2015.00698
The grand challenges of schizophrenia research are linking the causes of the disorder to its symptoms and finding ways to overcome those symptoms. We argue that the field will be unable to address these challenges within psychiatry's standard neo-Kraepelinian (DSM) perspective. At the same time the current corrective, based in molecular genetics and cognitive neuroscience, is also likely to flounder due to its neglect for psychiatry's syndromal structure. We suggest adopting a new approach long used in reliability engineering, which also serves as a synthesis of these approaches. This approach, known as fault tree analysis, can be combined with extant neuroscientific data collection and computational modeling efforts to uncover the causal structures underlying the cognitive and affective failures in people with schizophrenia as well as other complex psychiatric phenomena. By making explicit how causes combine from basic faults to downstream failures, this approach makes affordances for: (1) causes that are neither...

The Exploration of Dietary Habits Associated with Healthy Brain Functioning Across the Lifespan

Society for Neuroscience - 2016-01-01Mathison JH, James L, Hoover H, Georgopoulos A, Georgopoulos AP
The Healthy Brain Project (HBP) is a unique study at the
Brain Sciences Center

Brain Sciences Center (BSC)

A research group in collaboration with the Minnesota American Legion, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, and the University of Minnesota.
that integrates neuroimaging, genetics, cognitive, and lifestyle data in order to identify characteristics associated with healthy brain aging [1]. Participants are cognitively healthy women veterans from ealty adulthood to advanced old age. Collecting such data from a healthy population could allow for more detailed identification of dietary habits associated with healthy brain function across the lifespan.

Reduced
Human Leukocyte Antigen

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)

Genes that are located in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of chromosome 6 and play a central role in immune recognition. Most investigations of association of HLA to various diseases have focused on evaluating HLA allele frequencies in diseases of interest, as compared to the general, healthy population. Such studies have demonstrated HLA involvement with cancer, autoimmune, and in- fectious diseases. HLA Class I proteins (HLA-A, B, C) are expressed on all nucleated cells and present peptides from endogenous proteins to cytotoxic T lymphocytes engaged in immune surveillance. HLA Class II proteins (HLA-DRB1, DRB3/4/5, DQB1, DPB1) are expressed on antigen-presenting cells and present peptides derived from exogenous proteins to CD4+helper T cells. A previous study of Gulf War syndrome in 27 veterans found that HLA DRB1*15 was more prevalent in cases than controls with an odds ratio of 1.66, although this association was not statistically significant.
Protection in
Gulf War Illness

Gulf War Illness (GWI)

Shortly after the Gulf War (1990^aEUR"91), veterans started to report a variety of health problems that began during, or soon after returning from, deployment, prompting investigation into the epidemiology and etiology of the complaints. Those investigations revealed that diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, mood and neurocognitive complaints, gastrointestinal problems, and rashes were most commonly reported. The constellation of symptoms, now commonly referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI), has affected a substantial number of Gulf War veterans. Several population-based studies have demonstrated that these symptoms occur at significantly higher rates in deployed Gulf War veterans relative to their nondeployed peers and other veterans, raising the issue about possible in-theater exposures and stress as contributing factors. However, these symptoms are also present in non-deployed military personnel, leading some to suspect other causes, including reactions to vaccine adjuvants. In summary, GWI is now a recognized constellation of symptoms of unclear etiology, also co-occurring with psychiatric disorders.

BackgroundGulf War Illness (
GWI

Gulf War Illness (GWI)

Shortly after the Gulf War (1990^aEUR"91), veterans started to report a variety of health problems that began during, or soon after returning from, deployment, prompting investigation into the epidemiology and etiology of the complaints. Those investigations revealed that diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, mood and neurocognitive complaints, gastrointestinal problems, and rashes were most commonly reported. The constellation of symptoms, now commonly referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI), has affected a substantial number of Gulf War veterans. Several population-based studies have demonstrated that these symptoms occur at significantly higher rates in deployed Gulf War veterans relative to their nondeployed peers and other veterans, raising the issue about possible in-theater exposures and stress as contributing factors. However, these symptoms are also present in non-deployed military personnel, leading some to suspect other causes, including reactions to vaccine adjuvants. In summary, GWI is now a recognized constellation of symptoms of unclear etiology, also co-occurring with psychiatric disorders.
) is a disease of unknown etiology with symptoms suggesting the involvement of an immune process. Here we tested the hypothesis that
Human Leukocyte Antigen

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)

Genes that are located in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of chromosome 6 and play a central role in immune recognition. Most investigations of association of HLA to various diseases have focused on evaluating HLA allele frequencies in diseases of interest, as compared to the general, healthy population. Such studies have demonstrated HLA involvement with cancer, autoimmune, and in- fectious diseases. HLA Class I proteins (HLA-A, B, C) are expressed on all nucleated cells and present peptides from endogenous proteins to cytotoxic T lymphocytes engaged in immune surveillance. HLA Class II proteins (HLA-DRB1, DRB3/4/5, DQB1, DPB1) are expressed on antigen-presenting cells and present peptides derived from exogenous proteins to CD4+helper T cells. A previous study of Gulf War syndrome in 27 veterans found that HLA DRB1*15 was more prevalent in cases than controls with an odds ratio of 1.66, although this association was not statistically significant.
composition might differ between veterans with and without
GWI

Gulf War Illness (GWI)

Shortly after the Gulf War (1990^aEUR"91), veterans started to report a variety of health problems that began during, or soon after returning from, deployment, prompting investigation into the epidemiology and etiology of the complaints. Those investigations revealed that diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, mood and neurocognitive complaints, gastrointestinal problems, and rashes were most commonly reported. The constellation of symptoms, now commonly referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI), has affected a substantial number of Gulf War veterans. Several population-based studies have demonstrated that these symptoms occur at significantly higher rates in deployed Gulf War veterans relative to their nondeployed peers and other veterans, raising the issue about possible in-theater exposures and stress as contributing factors. However, these symptoms are also present in non-deployed military personnel, leading some to suspect other causes, including reactions to vaccine adjuvants. In summary, GWI is now a recognized constellation of symptoms of unclear etiology, also co-occurring with psychiatric disorders.
.MethodsWe identified 144 unique alleles of Class I and II
HLA

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)

Genes that are located in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of chromosome 6 and play a central role in immune recognition. Most investigations of association of HLA to various diseases have focused on evaluating HLA allele frequencies in diseases of interest, as compared to the general, healthy population. Such studies have demonstrated HLA involvement with cancer, autoimmune, and in- fectious diseases. HLA Class I proteins (HLA-A, B, C) are expressed on all nucleated cells and present peptides from endogenous proteins to cytotoxic T lymphocytes engaged in immune surveillance. HLA Class II proteins (HLA-DRB1, DRB3/4/5, DQB1, DPB1) are expressed on antigen-presenting cells and present peptides derived from exogenous proteins to CD4+helper T cells. A previous study of Gulf War syndrome in 27 veterans found that HLA DRB1*15 was more prevalent in cases than controls with an odds ratio of 1.66, although this association was not statistically significant.
genes in 82 veterans (66 with and 16 without
GWI

Gulf War Illness (GWI)

Shortly after the Gulf War (1990^aEUR"91), veterans started to report a variety of health problems that began during, or soon after returning from, deployment, prompting investigation into the epidemiology and etiology of the complaints. Those investigations revealed that diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, mood and neurocognitive complaints, gastrointestinal problems, and rashes were most commonly reported. The constellation of symptoms, now commonly referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI), has affected a substantial number of Gulf War veterans. Several population-based studies have demonstrated that these symptoms occur at significantly higher rates in deployed Gulf War veterans relative to their nondeployed peers and other veterans, raising the issue about possible in-theater exposures and stress as contributing factors. However, these symptoms are also present in non-deployed military personnel, leading some to suspect other causes, including reactions to vaccine adjuvants. In summary, GWI is now a recognized constellation of symptoms of unclear etiology, also co-occurring with psychiatric disorders.
). We tested the hypothesis that a subset of
HLA

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)

Genes that are located in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of chromosome 6 and play a central role in immune recognition. Most investigations of association of HLA to various diseases have focused on evaluating HLA allele frequencies in diseases of interest, as compared to the general, healthy population. Such studies have demonstrated HLA involvement with cancer, autoimmune, and in- fectious diseases. HLA Class I proteins (HLA-A, B, C) are expressed on all nucleated cells and present peptides from endogenous proteins to cytotoxic T lymphocytes engaged in immune surveillance. HLA Class II proteins (HLA-DRB1, DRB3/4/5, DQB1, DPB1) are expressed on antigen-presenting cells and present peptides derived from exogenous proteins to CD4+helper T cells. A previous study of Gulf War syndrome in 27 veterans found that HLA DRB1*15 was more prevalent in cases than controls with an odds ratio of 1.66, although this association was not statistically significant.
alleles may classify veterans in their respective group using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis. In addition, each participant rated symptom severity in 6 domains according to established
GWI

Gulf War Illness (GWI)

Shortly after the Gulf War (1990^aEUR"91), veterans started to report a variety of health problems that began during, or soon after returning from, deployment, prompting investigation into the epidemiology and etiology of the complaints. Those investigations revealed that diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, mood and neurocognitive complaints, gastrointestinal problems, and rashes were most commonly reported. The constellation of symptoms, now commonly referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI), has affected a substantial number of Gulf War veterans. Several population-based studies have demonstrated that these symptoms occur at significantly higher rates in deployed Gulf War veterans relative to their nondeployed peers and other veterans, raising the issue about possible in-theater exposures and stress as contributing factors. However, these symptoms are also present in non-deployed military personnel, leading some to suspect other causes, including reactions to vaccine adjuvants. In summary, GWI is now a recognized constellation of symptoms of unclear etiology, also co-occurring with psychiatric disorders.
criteria, and an overall symptom severity was calculated.FindingsWe found 6 Class II alleles that classified participants 84.1% correctly (13/16 control and 56/66
GWI

Gulf War Illness (GWI)

Shortly after the Gulf War (1990^aEUR"91), veterans started to report a variety of health problems that began during, or soon after returning from, deployment, prompting investigation into the epidemiology and etiology of the complaints. Those investigations revealed that diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, mood and neurocognitive complaints, gastrointestinal problems, and rashes were most commonly reported. The constellation of symptoms, now commonly referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI), has affected a substantial number of Gulf War veterans. Several population-based studies have demonstrated that these symptoms occur at significantly higher rates in deployed Gulf War veterans relative to their nondeployed peers and other veterans, raising the issue about possible in-theater exposures and stress as contributing factors. However, these symptoms are also present in non-deployed military personnel, leading some to suspect other causes, including reactions to vaccine adjuvants. In summary, GWI is now a recognized constellation of symptoms of unclear etiology, also co-occurring with psychiatric disorders.
). The number of copies of the 6 alleles was significantly higher in the control group, suggesting a protective role. This was supported by a significant negative dependence of overall symptom severity on the...

Please Repeat - Classification of 3D Reach Targets from Electroenephalographic Signals is Enhanced by Repetition

Current Research in Motor Control V - 2016-01-01Sosnik R, Tadipatri VA, Tewfik AH, Pellizzer G
The advent of high quality multi-channel EEG recording systems and the significant advance in the field of machine learning enabled decoding complex motion features, such as the direction of hand movement in real (Waldert et al. 2008) and imaginary conditions (Ofner and Muller-Putz 2015). These decoding algorithms usually use classifiers like linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) on signal features to decode classes of movements, while other algorithms such as multivariate regression (MVR) are used to decode hand movement trajectories (Rickert et al. 2005). Currently, the discrimination of actual or imagined pointing movements to different targets with the same limb is modest. This is due to the fact that these motor tasks activate essentially the same motor-related neural networks for all targets, thus, the discrimination between different actual or imagined movements has to rely more heavily on differences in temporal and spectral features of the neural activity rather...

Neural Network Decorrelation for Healthy Brain Aging: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal
Magnetoencephalography

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

A noninvasive technique that detects magnetic fields above the surface of the head produced by postsynaptic potentials in the brain.
study

Society for Neuroscience - 2016-01-01James L, Leuthold A, Georgopoulos A, Chorn C, Mathison JH, Georgopoulos AP
Neural network decorrelation is fundamental to information processing. Specifically, ensemble freedom is constrained by correlations amount network elements: a network with least correlated elements provides maximum independence (i.e., zero mutual information) and hence entails maximum possibilities for encoding information.We have previously demonstrated that neural decorrelation, primarily involving temporal regions, distinguishes healthy veterans from those with psychiatric disorders, and have hypothesized that network decorrelation underlies healthy brain functioning by permitting neural flexibility (James et al., JAMA Psychiatry 70:410-418). In the present study (http://healthybrain.umn.edu/), we tested the hypothesis that in cognitively healthy individuals, decorrelation would increase with age, serving as a mechanism that promotes efficient information processing and neural flexibility to maintain healthy brain functioning across the lifespan.

Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma: Modeling the What and How of Transmission

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - 2016-01-01Danieli Y, Norris FH, Engdahl B10.1037/ort0000145
To operationalize the theory of Trauma and the Continuity of Self: A Multidimensional, Multidisciplinary, Integrative Framework (Danieli, 1998), we created a testable model using factors in Holocaust survivors' lives that may have affected their offspring's adaptation. A web-based sample of 422 adult children of survivors completed a 3-part inventory assessing multigenerational legacies of trauma. To explain the severity of the child's reparative adaptational impacts, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses (Phase 1) and path analyses (Phase 2). We hypothesized that these impacts followed largely from the (child-reported) intensities of parents' victim, numb, and fighter posttrauma adaptational styles. These styles, in turn, followed from family history and post-Holocaust family milieu. With all effects of family history and milieu on offspring specified as indirect (through parents' victim styles), the initial path model fit the data well with one exception: Broken generational linkages had direct as well as indirect effects. While survivors' Holocaust experiences-especially internment-had...

Blood Test Could Determine Who May Suffer from
Gulf War Illness

Gulf War Illness (GWI)

Shortly after the Gulf War (1990^aEUR"91), veterans started to report a variety of health problems that began during, or soon after returning from, deployment, prompting investigation into the epidemiology and etiology of the complaints. Those investigations revealed that diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, mood and neurocognitive complaints, gastrointestinal problems, and rashes were most commonly reported. The constellation of symptoms, now commonly referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI), has affected a substantial number of Gulf War veterans. Several population-based studies have demonstrated that these symptoms occur at significantly higher rates in deployed Gulf War veterans relative to their nondeployed peers and other veterans, raising the issue about possible in-theater exposures and stress as contributing factors. However, these symptoms are also present in non-deployed military personnel, leading some to suspect other causes, including reactions to vaccine adjuvants. In summary, GWI is now a recognized constellation of symptoms of unclear etiology, also co-occurring with psychiatric disorders.

KSTP - Todd Wilson - 2015-12-10Engdahl B
Brian Zimmermann joined the Army soon after quitting college. School just wasn't his thing."You don't think you'll have to fight when going into the Army," he said.He was deployed for seven months during the first gulf war."We were attached to the seventh corps, and the seventh corps is who breached the berms from Saudi Arabia into Iraq," he said. "And we pushed across the country and made it all the way to the highway of death."Zimmermann said he finished out his duty at a base in Kansas. Even before he came back from Iraq he knew something was wrong with him. Ever since that time, he said he has suffered from anxiety and feeling as if his skin is on fire."I have joint pain all the time, it doesn't go away. Sometimes it gets worse, it feels like your joints are exploding from the inside," he said.According to the Department of...

Pathological personality traits modulate neural interactions

Experimental Brain Research - 2015-12-01James L, Engdahl B, Leuthold A, Krueger RF, Georgopoulos AP10.1007/s00221-015-4406-6
The DSM\-5, includes an empirically supported dimensional model of personality pathology that is assessed via the Personality Inventory for the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)

The 2013 update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) classification and diagnostic tool. In the United States the DSM serves as a universal authority for psychiatric diagnosis. Treatment recommendations, as well as payment by health care providers, are often determined by DSM classifications, so the appearance of a new version has significant practical importance.
(PID-5). Here we used
Magnetoencephalography

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

A noninvasive technique that detects magnetic fields above the surface of the head produced by postsynaptic potentials in the brain.
(
MEG

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

A noninvasive technique that detects magnetic fields above the surface of the head produced by postsynaptic potentials in the brain.
; 248 sensors) to evaluate resting-state neural network properties associated with the five primary
DSM-5

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)

The 2013 update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) classification and diagnostic tool. In the United States the DSM serves as a universal authority for psychiatric diagnosis. Treatment recommendations, as well as payment by health care providers, are often determined by DSM classifications, so the appearance of a new version has significant practical importance.
maladaptive personality domains (negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism) in 150 healthy veterans ("control" group) and 179 veterans with various psychiatric disorders ("psychopathology" group). Since a fundamental network property is the strength of functional connectivity among network elements, we used the absolute value of the pairwise correlation coefficient (aCC) between prewhitened
MEG

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

A noninvasive technique that detects magnetic fields above the surface of the head produced by postsynaptic potentials in the brain.
sensor time series as a measure of neural functional connectivity and assessed its relations to the quantitative PID-5 scores in a linear regression model, where the log-transformed aCC was the dependent variable and individual PID scores, age, and gender were the independent variables. The partial regression coefficient (pRC)...

Neural mechanisms underlying the exploration of small city maps using magnetoencephalography

The neural mechanisms underlying spatial cognition in the context of exploring realistic city maps are unknown. We conducted a novel brain imaging study to address the question of whether and how features of special importance for map exploration are encoded in the brain to make a spatial decision. Subjects explored by eyes small city maps exemplifying five different street network types in order to locate a hypothetical City Hall, while neural activity was recorded continuously by 248
MEG

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

A noninvasive technique that detects magnetic fields above the surface of the head produced by postsynaptic potentials in the brain.
sensors at high temporal resolution. Monitoring subjects' eye positions, we locally characterized the maps by computing three spatial parameters of the areas that were explored. We computed the number of street intersections, the total street length, and the regularity index in the circular areas of 6 degrees of visual angle radius centered on instantaneous eye positions. We tested the hypothesis that neural activity during exploration is associated with the spatial parameters and...

A Brain in a Dish

PostDoc Journal - 2015-11-01Goodwin SJ
Ohio State University researchers have made a leap forward in disease research by creating an eraser sized human "brain" in a petri dish1. Although lacking a circulatory system their brain model includes spinal cord, cortex, midbrain, brain stem, and even the beginnings of an eye- aiding in the effectiveness of research on complex neurological disease. To create their new brain model, the researchers converted adult skin cells into pluripotent stem cells, which afforded the opportunity to build the multiple nervous cell types required for such a complex system. Having this tissue model will assist researchers in developing new disease models, and thus, facilitate the development of novel clinical interventions.

The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part I: Survivors' posttrauma adaptational styles in their children's eyes

Journal of Psychiatric Research - 2015-09-01Danieli Y, Norris FH, Lindert J, Paisner V, Engdahl B, Richter J10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.06.011
A comprehensive valid behavioral measure for assessing multidimensional multigenerational impacts of massive trauma has been missing thus far. We describe the development of the Posttrauma Adaptational Styles questionnaire (Part I of the three-part Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma), a self-report questionnaire of Holocaust survivors' children's perceptions of each parent and their own upbringing (60 items per parent). The items were based on literature and cognitive interviewing of 18 survivors' offspring. A web-based convenience sample survey was designed in English and Hebrew and completed by 482 adult children (M age = 59; 67% women) of Holocaust survivors. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted by using maximum likelihood extraction with Geomin rotation to examine the factor structure of the original 70 items for each parent. Conducted hierarchically, the analysis yielded three higher-order factors reflecting intensities of victim, numb, and fighter styles. The 30-item Victim Style Scale (α = .92-.93) and 18-item Numb...

Evaluating the dimensionality of
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
in a sample of
Operation Iraqi Freedom

Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)

The period of the Iraq war lasting from 2003 to 2010 was referred to as Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) by the United States military. The conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, Gulf War II, and Gulf War 2.
/
Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan

Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan (OEF)

The U.S. government used the term "Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan" (OEF) to officially describe the War in Afghanistan, from the period between October 2001 and December 2014. ... Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name "Operation Freedom's Sentinel".
veterans

Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy - 2015-09-01Frankfurt S, Anders S, James L, Engdahl B, Winskowski AM10.1037/tra0000012
Both categorical and dimensional models of mental disorders, including
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
, are useful for diagnostic and heuristic purposes; however, few empirical studies have compared categorical and dimensional models of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
side-by-side or compared these models to a hybrid (dimensional and categorical) model. In the present study, the dimensionality of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
was examined by fitting latent profile analytic, confirmatory factor analytic, and factor mixture models in 271
Operation Iraqi Freedom

Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)

The period of the Iraq war lasting from 2003 to 2010 was referred to as Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) by the United States military. The conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, Gulf War II, and Gulf War 2.
/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans 6 months after return from deployment. Latent profile analysis was used to identify subgroups of individuals with similar
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
symptom profiles and predictors of subgroup membership, confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify the underlying continuous structure of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
in this sample, and factor mixture modeling was used to test whether a hybrid categorical and continuous model of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
best fit our sample. A factor mixture model consisting of a 4-factor dysphoria model of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
with 2...

Diagnosis of
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
based on correlations of prewhitened
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
data: outcomes and areas involved

Successful diagnosis of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
has been achieved using neural correlations from prewhitened magnetoencephalographic (
MEG

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

A noninvasive technique that detects magnetic fields above the surface of the head produced by postsynaptic potentials in the brain.
) time series (Georgopoulos et al. in J Neural Eng 7:16011, 2010. doi:10.1088/1741-2560/7/1/016011; James et al. 2015). Here, we show that highly successful classification of
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
and control subjects can be obtained using neural correlations from prewhitened resting-state
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
data. All but one
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
(14/15; sensitivity = 93.3 %) and all but one control (20/21; specificity = 95.2 %) subjects were correctly classified using 15 out of 2701 possible correlations between 74 brain areas. In contrast, correlations of the same but non-prewhitened data yielded chance-level classifications. We conclude that, if properly processed,
fMRI

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.[citation needed] The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to ionising radiation, etc.
has the prospect of aiding significantly in
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
diagnosis. Twenty-five brain areas were most prominently involved in correct subject classification, including areas from all cortical lobes and the left pallidum.

POWs,
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
and Coping

Minnesota Military Radio Hour - 2015-08-23Engdahl B
A discussion of POW's,
PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A complex psychiatric syndrome that develops in response to trauma exposure. Individuals with PTSD experience intrusive recollections or reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of trauma reminders, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. In addition, PTSD is associated with high rates of concomitant physical and mental health problems, increased health care use, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Almost 7% of the general population and up to 30% of veterans meet lifetime criteria for PTSD. Indeed, PTSD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a significant and costly public health concern.
and coping mechanisms with Dr. Brian Engdahl from the Minneapolis VA.

Coding of movements in the motor cortex

Current Opinion in Neurobiology - 2015-08-01Georgopoulos AP, Carpenter A10.1016/j.conb.2015.01.012
The issue of coding of movement in the motor cortex has recently acquired special significance due to its fundamental importance in neuroprosthetic applications. The challenge of controlling a prosthetic arm by processed motor cortical activity has opened a new era of research in applied medicine but has also provided an 'acid test' for hypotheses regarding coding of movement in the motor cortex. The successful decoding of movement information from the activity of motor cortical cells using their directional tuning and population coding has propelled successful neuroprosthetic applications and, at the same time, asserted the utility of those early discoveries, dating back to the early 1980s

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