Apostolos P. Georgopoulos, MD PhD

Director, Brain Sciences Center
Regents Professor, University of Minnesota
American Legion Brain Sciences Chair, University of Minnesota
McKnight Presidential Chair in Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Minnesota
Professor of Neuroscience, Neurology, and Psychiatry, University of Minnesota
Elected Member, National Academy of Medicine (2004)
Elected Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2002)
Editoral Board, Vaccines


MD, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
PhD, University of Athens, Athens, Greece


Human Leukocyte Antigen
Gulf War Illness
Healthy Brain Aging
Neural mechanisms of cognitive processes
Neurophysiology of motor control and cognition
Functional MRI of motor and cognitive processes



2021-08-20 through 2019-12-28


2019-12-27 through 2017-06-15


2017-05-27 through 2015-01-01


2014-08-11 through 2010-07-01


2010-06-21 through 2007-06-01


2007-01-01 through 2004-10-01


2004-09-01 through 2002-01-01


2002-01-01 through 1999-03-12


1999-03-01 through 1997-01-01


1996-11-01 through 1994-08-30


1994-08-01 through 1992-01-01


1992-01-01 through 1988-10-01


1988-09-15 through 1984-01-01


1984-01-01 through 1975-07-01

  1. Charonis S, James L, & Georgopoulos AP (2019, October) In Silico Analysis of the Binding Affinities of Antigenic Epitopes of Vaccines Administered to Gulf War Veterans to Specific
    Human Leukocyte Antigen

    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)

    Genes that are located in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of chromosome 6 and play a central role in immune recognition. Most investigations of association of HLA to various diseases have focused on evaluating HLA allele frequencies in diseases of interest, as compared to the general, healthy population. Such studies have demonstrated HLA involvement with cancer, autoimmune, and in- fectious diseases. HLA Class I proteins (HLA-A, B, C) are expressed on all nucleated cells and present peptides from endogenous proteins to cytotoxic T lymphocytes engaged in immune surveillance. HLA Class II proteins (HLA-DRB1, DRB3/4/5, DQB1, DPB1) are expressed on antigen-presenting cells and present peptides derived from exogenous proteins to CD4+helper T cells. A previous study of Gulf War syndrome in 27 veterans found that HLA DRB1*15 was more prevalent in cases than controls with an odds ratio of 1.66, although this association was not statistically significant.
    Class II Alleles Protective for
    Gulf War Illness

    Gulf War Illness (GWI)

    Shortly after the Gulf War (1990^aEUR"91), veterans started to report a variety of health problems that began during, or soon after returning from, deployment, prompting investigation into the epidemiology and etiology of the complaints. Those investigations revealed that diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, mood and neurocognitive complaints, gastrointestinal problems, and rashes were most commonly reported. The constellation of symptoms, now commonly referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI), has affected a substantial number of Gulf War veterans. Several population-based studies have demonstrated that these symptoms occur at significantly higher rates in deployed Gulf War veterans relative to their nondeployed peers and other veterans, raising the issue about possible in-theater exposures and stress as contributing factors. However, these symptoms are also present in non-deployed military personnel, leading some to suspect other causes, including reactions to vaccine adjuvants. In summary, GWI is now a recognized constellation of symptoms of unclear etiology, also co-occurring with psychiatric disorders.
    Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine 4(5) 23-30