Apostolos P. Georgopoulos, MD PhD
Director, Brain Sciences CenterBrain Sciences Center (BSC)
Regents Professor, University of Minnesota
American Legion Brain Sciences Chair, University of Minnesota
McKnight Presidential Chair in Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Minnesota
Professor of Neuroscience, Neurology, and Psychiatry, University of Minnesota
Elected Member, National Academy of Medicine (2004)
Elected Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2002)
Editoral Board, Vaccines
Researcher, Minneapolis VA Medical CenterVA Medical Center (VAMC)


MD, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
PhD, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Human Leukocyte AntigenHuman Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)Genes that are located in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of chromosome 6 and play a central role in immune recognition. Most investigations of association of HLA to various diseases have focused on evaluating HLA allele frequencies in diseases of interest, as compared to the general, healthy population. Such studies have demonstrated HLA involvement with cancer, autoimmune, and in- fectious diseases. HLA Class I proteins (HLA-A, B, C) are expressed on all nucleated cells and present peptides from endogenous proteins to cytotoxic T lymphocytes engaged in immune surveillance. HLA Class II proteins (HLA-DRB1, DRB3/4/5, DQB1, DPB1) are expressed on antigen-presenting cells and present peptides derived from exogenous proteins to CD4+helper T cells. A previous study of Gulf War syndrome in 27 veterans found that HLA DRB1*15 was more prevalent in cases than controls with an odds ratio of 1.66, although this association was not statistically significant.
Gulf War IllnessGulf War Illness (GWI)Shortly after the Gulf War (1990-91), veterans started to report a variety of health problems that began during, or soon after returning from, deployment, prompting investigation into the epidemiology and etiology of the complaints. Those investigations revealed that diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, mood and neurocognitive complaints, gastrointestinal problems, and rashes were most commonly reported. The constellation of symptoms, now commonly referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI), has affected a substantial number of Gulf War veterans. Several population-based studies have demonstrated that these symptoms occur at significantly higher rates in deployed Gulf War veterans relative to their nondeployed peers and other veterans, raising the issue about possible in-theater exposures and stress as contributing factors. However, these symptoms are also present in non-deployed military personnel, leading some to suspect other causes, including reactions to vaccine adjuvants. In summary, GWI is now a recognized constellation of symptoms of unclear etiology, also co-occurring with psychiatric disorders.
Healthy Brain Aging
Neural mechanisms of cognitive processes
Neurophysiology of motor control and cognition
Functional MRI of motor and cognitive processes


Pages: 1March 2024 through July 20222June 2022 through February 20213February 2021 through October 20194September 2019 through November 20165November 2016 through January 20146June 2013 through January 20107November 2009 through December 20068June 2006 through July 20049April 2004 through October 200110July 2001 through March 199911January 1999 through July 199612June 1996 through March 199413January 1994 through December 199114December 1991 through August 198815August 1988 through August 198316March 1983 through July 1975